Copyright Laws

Copyright was invented with the intention to restrict access to information or to promote controlled information.

The origin of copyright law in most European countries lies in efforts by the church and governments to regulate and control the output of printers.

In 1559 the Index Expurgatorius, or List of Prohibited Books, was issued for the first time.

While governments and church encouraged printing in many ways, which allowed the dissemination of Bibles and government information, works of dissent and criticism could also circulate rapidly. As a consequence, governments established controls over printers across Europe, requiring them to have official licences to trade and produce books.

The licenses typically gave printers the exclusive right to print particular works for a fixed period of years, and enabled the printer to prevent others from printing the same work during that period. The licenses could only grant rights to print in the territory of the state that had granted them, but they did usually prohibit the import of foreign printing.

The republic of Venice granted its first privilege for a particular book in 1486. It was a special case, being the history of the city itself, the ‘Rerum venetarum ab urbe condita opus’ of Marcus Antonius Coccius Sabellicus”. From 1492 onwards Venice began regularly granting privileges for books.The Republic of Venice, the dukes of Florence, and Leo X and other Popes conceded at different times to certain printers the exclusive privilege of printing for specific terms (rarely exceeding 14 years) editions of classic authors.

The first copyright privilege in England bears date 1518 and was issued to Richard Pynson, King’s Printer, the successor to William Caxton. The privilege gives a monopoly for the term of two years. The date is 15 years later than that of the first privilege issued in France. Early copyright privileges were called “monopolies,” particularly during the reign of Queen Elizabeth, who frequently gave grants of monopolies in articles of common use, such as salt, leather, coal, soap, cards, beer, and wine. The practice was continued until the Statute of Monopolies was enacted in 1623, ending most monopolies, with certain exceptions, such as patents; after 1623, grants of Letters patent to publishers became common.

The earliest German privilege of which there is trustworthy record was issued in 1501 by the Aulic Council to an association entitled the Sodalitas Rhenana Celtica, for the publication of an edition of the dramas of Hroswitha of Gandersheim, which had been prepared for the press by Conrad Celtes .According to historian Eckhard Höffner indicated that there was no effective copyright legislation in Germany in the early 19th century. Prussia introduced a copyright law in 1837, but even then authors and publishers just had to go to another German state to circumvent its ruling.

In England the printers, known as stationers, formed a collective organisation, known as the Stationers’ Company. In the 16th century the Stationers’ Company was given the power to require all lawfully printed books to be entered into its register.

Only members of the Stationers’ Company could enter books into the register. This meant that the Stationers’ Company achieved a dominant position over publishing in 17th century England (no equivalent arrangement formed in Scotland and Ireland). The monopoly came to an end in 1695, when the English Parliament did not renew the Stationers Company’s power.

In pre-revolutionary France all books needed to be approved by official censors and authors and publishers had to obtain a royal privilege before a book could be published. Royal privileges were exclusive and usually granted for six years, with the possibility of renewal. Over time it was established that the owner of a royal privilege has the sole right to obtain a renewal indefinitely. ( again control of information). In 1761 the Royal Council awarded a royal privilege to the heirs of an author rather than the author’s publisher, sparking a national debate on the nature of literary property similar to that taking place in Britain during the battle of the booksellers.

The Berne Convention was first established in 1886, and was subsequently re-negotiated in 1896 (Paris), 1908 (Berlin), 1928 (Rome), 1948 (Brussels), 1967 (Stockholm) and 1971 (Paris). The convention relates to literary and artistic works, which includes films, and the convention requires its member states to provide protection for every production in the literary, scientific and artistic domain. The Berne Convention has a number of core features, including the principle of national treatment, which holds that each member state to the Convention would give citizens of other member states the same rights of copyright that it gave to its own citizens (Article 3-5).

Today national copyright laws have been standardised to some extent through international and regional agreements such as the Berne Convention and the European copyright directives. Although there are consistencies among nations’ copyright laws, each jurisdiction has separate and distinct laws and regulations about copyright. Some jurisdictions also recognize moral rights of creators, such as the right to be credited for the work.

Copyrights are exclusive rights granted to the author or creator of an original work, including the right to copy, distribute and adapt the work. Copyright does not protect ideas, only their expression or fixation.

In most jurisdictions copyright arises upon fixation and does not need to be registered. Copyright owners have the exclusive statutory right to exercise control over copying and other exploitation of the works for a specific period of time, after which the work is said to enter the public domain.

Uses which are covered under limitations and exceptions to copyright, such as fair use, do not require permission from the copyright owner. All other uses require permission and copyright owners can license or permanently transfer or assign their exclusive rights to others.

Index Librorum Prohibitorum

The Index Librorum Prohibitorum (English: List of Prohibited Books) was a list of publications deemed heretical, or contrary to morality by the Sacred Congregation of the Index (a former Dicastery of the Roman Curia) and thus Catholics were forbidden to read them.

The 9th century witnessed the creation of what is considered to be the first index, called the Decretum Glasianum, but it was never officially authorized. Much later, a first version (the Pauline Index) was promulgated by Pope Paul IV in 1559, which Paul F. Grendler believed marked “the turning-point for the freedom of enquiry in the Catholic world”, and which lasted less than a year, being then replaced by what was called the Tridentine Index (because it was authorized at the Council of Trent), which relaxed aspects of the Pauline Index that had been criticized and had prevented its acceptance.

The 20th and final edition appeared in 1948, and the Index was formally abolished on 14 June 1966 by Pope Paul VI.

The Sacred Congregation of the Inquisition of the Roman Catholic Church later became the Holy Office, and since 1965 has been called the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. The Congregation of the Index was merged with the Holy Office in 1917, by the Motu Proprio “Alloquentes Proxime” of Pope Benedict XV; the rules on the reading of books were again reelaborated in the new Codex Iuris Canonici. From 1917 onward, the Holy Office (again) took care of the Index.

The aim of the list was to protect the faith and morals of the faithful by preventing the reading of theologically, culturally, and politically disruptive books. Books thought to contain such errors included works by astronomers such as Johannes Kepler’s Epitome astronomiae Copernicanae, which was on the Index from 1621 to 1835, and by philosophers, like Immanuel Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason. The various editions of the Index also contained the rules of the Church relating to the reading, selling and pre-emptive censorship of books—editions and translations of the Bible that had not been approved by the Church could be banned.

 

Some of the scientific theories in works that were on early editions of the Index have long been routinely taught at Catholic universities worldwide; for example, the general prohibition of books advocating heliocentrism was only removed from the Index in 1758, but already in 1742 two Minims mathematicians had published an edition of Isaac Newton’s Principia Mathematica (1687) with commentaries and a preface stating that the work assumed heliocentrism and could not be explained without it.The burning at the stake of Giordano Bruno, whose entire works were placed on the Index in 1603, was because of teaching the heresy of pantheism, not for heliocentrism or other scientific views. Antonio Rosmini-Serbati, one of whose works was on the Index, was beatified in 2007. Some have argued that the developments since the abolition of the Index signify “the loss of relevance of the Index in the 21st century.”

Rosmini’s works, Of the five wounds of the Holy Church and The Constitution of Social Justice (see Works below), aroused great opposition, especially among the Jesuits ( a sect that modified the history introducing time errors and ommissions), and in 1849 they were placed upon the Index.Rosmini at once declared his submission and retired to Stresa on Lago Maggiore, where he died.

Of the Five Wounds of the Holy Church presupposes an analogy between the Holy Wounds suffered by the Lord’s natural Body pierced on the cross, and His mystical body, the Church, pierced by the sins and errors of men in the ages of Christian history.

The five main evils of his contemporary Italian Church correspond, in Rosmini’s view, to the five wounds of the hands, feet, and side of the Divine Redeemer. Beginning with the wound in Jesus’ left hand, he likens it to the lack of sympathy between the clergy and people in the act of public worship, which he sees as a result of a lack of adequate Christian evangelical teaching. This is to be accounted for by the wound in the right hand — the insufficient education of the clergy, their secularisation and their alienation from scripture and their bishops. This again was both caused and perpetuated by the great wound in the side, which pierced the Heart of the Divine Sufferer, and which Rosmini sees as a parallel for the divisions among the Bishops, separating them from one another, and also from their clergy and people, forgetting their true union in the Body of Christ. The wound of the right foot is compared to the civil power of the Bishops making them into worldly schemers and politicians, more or less intent on selfish interests. The wound of the left foot is compared to events of the feudal period, when the freehold tenures of the Church were treated as fiefs by an overlord, or suzerain, who saw in the chief pastors of the flock of Christ only a particular variety of vassals or dependants.

In 1998 he was named by Pope John Paul II in the encyclical Fides et Ratio as one of the greater Christian thinkers.

List of authors and works on the Index Librorum Prohibitorum

This is a selected list of the authors and works appearing in the final published edition of the Index in 1948, with later additions until the Index was discontinued in 1966.

Banned Name Works Ref.
1600 Bruno, Giordano Opera omnia [a]
1626, 1657, 1658,
1659, 1672
Grotius, Hugo Opera omnia theologica;
De Imperio summarum potestatum circa sacra (pub. 1647);
Annales et historiae de rebus belgicis (pub. 1657);
+6 more
[b]
1645 Browne, Thomas Religio medici; the religion of a physician [c]
1649 Hobbes, Thomas Opera omnia [d]
1657, 1789 Pascal, Blaise Lettres provinciales (1657);
Pensées (pub. 1670), with notes by Voltaire
[e]
1659 Calvin, John Lexicon iuridicum iuris caesarei simul et canonici [f]
1663 Descartes, René Meditations (1641);
Les passions de l’âme (1649);
Opera philosophica. Donec corrig.;
+4 more
[g]
1667 Leti, Gregorio Opera omnia [h]
1668 Bacon, Francis De dignitate et augmentis scientiarum libri IX. Donec corrig. [i]
1676 Montaigne, Michel de Essays [j]
1679, 1690 Spinoza, Baruch Tractatus Theologico-Politicus (1677);
Opera posthuma
[k]
1684 Eriugena, Johannes Scotus De divisione naturae libri quinque diu desiderati [l]
1689, 1707, 1712 Malebranche, Nicolas Traité de la nature et de la grace (1680);
Traité de morale (1684);
+4 more
[m]
1694, 1758 Milton, John Literae pseudo-senatus anglicani, Cromwellii reliquorumque perduellium nomine ac iussu conscriptae (1676);
Paradise Lost (1667)
[n]
1703 La Fontaine, Jean de Contes et Nouvelles [o]
1717 Maimonides ‘Tractate on Idolatry from the Mishneh Torah with notes by Dionysius Vossius [p]
1729 Addison, Joseph Remarks on Several Parts of Italy (1705; revised 1718) [q]
1734, 1737 Locke, John An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1689);
The Reasonableness of Christianity, as Delivered in the Scriptures (1695)
[r]
1738 Swedenborg, Emanuel Principia (1734) [s]
1742 Berkeley, George Alciphron, or The Minute Philosopher [t]
1743 Defoe, Daniel The Political History of the Devil (1726) [u]
1744 Richardson, Samuel Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded (1740) [v]
1751, 1762 Montesquieu Lettres Persanes (1721);
De l’esprit des lois (1748)
[w]
1752, 1753, 1757,
1761, 1762, 1765,
1766, 1768, 1769,
1771, 1773, 1776,
1779
Voltaire Candide (1759);
Traité sur la tolérance (1763);
Lettres philosophiques (1733; revised 1778);
+38 more
[x]
1758, 1804 Diderot, Denis Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers (1751–72);
Jacques le fataliste et son maître (pub. 1796)
[y]
1758 d’Alembert, Jean le Rond Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers (1751–72) [z]
1759, 1774 Helvétius, Claude Adrien De l’Esprit (1758);
De l’homme, de ses facultés intellectuelles et de son éducation
[aa]
1761 Hume, David Opera omnia [ab]
1762, 1766, 1806, Rousseau, Jean-Jacques Émile, ou de l’éducation (1762);
Du contrat social (1762);
Julie, ou la nouvelle Héloïse (1761)
[ac]
1764 Kollár, Adam František De originibus et usu perpetuo potestatis legislatoriae circa sacra apostolicorum regum Ungariae (1764) [ad]
1766 Beccaria, Cesare Dei Delitti e delle pene (1764) [ae]
1783 Gibbon, Edward Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (1776–1788) [af]
1815, 1840, 1859,
1863, 1866, 1896
Michelet, Jules 6 titles [ag]
1817 Darwin, Erasmus Zoonomia; or The Laws of Organic Life (1794) [ah]
1819 Sterne, Laurence A Sentimental Journey Through France and Italy (1768) [ai]
1827 Condorcet, Nicholas de Sketch for a Historical Picture of the Progress of the Human Mind (1794) [aj]
1827 Kant, Immanuel Critique of Pure Reason (1781; revised 1787) [ak]
1828 Stendhal Omnes fabulae amatoriae [al]
1834, 1837, 1838,
1841, 1843, 1846,
Lamennais, Hugues Felicité Robert de 7 works [am]
1834 Casanova, Giacomo Mémoires [an]
1835 Bentham, Jeremy Deontology, or The science of morality (1834);
+3 more
[ao]
1836 Heine, Heinrich Reisebilder;
De l’Allemagne;
De la France
[ap]
1840 Sand, George Omnes fabulae amatoriae [aq]
1841 Balzac, Honoré de Omnes fabulae amatoriae [ar]
1849 Gioberti, Vincenzo Opera omnia [as]
1852 Proudhon, Pierre-Joseph Opera omnia [at]
1856 Mill, John Stuart Principles of Political Economy (1848) [au]
1859, 1860, 1863,
1866, 1869, 1877,
1881, 1882, 1884,
1891, 1892,
Renan, Ernest 19 titles [av]
1863, 1880 Dumas, Alexandre (fils) Omnes fabulae amatoriae;
La question du divorce
[aw]
1863 Dumas, Alexandre (père) Omnes fabulae amatoriae [ax]
1864 Comte, Auguste Cours de philosophie positive [ay]
1864 Flaubert, Gustave Madame Bovary (1856);
Salammbô (1862)
[az]
1873 Larousse, Pierre Grand dictionnaire universel du XIXe siècle (1866–76) [ba]
1876 Draper, John William History of the Conflict between Religion and Science (1874) [bb]
1894 Zola, Émile Opera omnia [bc]
1911, 1928, 1935,
1939
D’Annunzio, Gabriele Omnia opera dramatica;
Omnes fabulae amatoriae;
+3 more
[bd]
1914 Bergson, Henri Essai sur les données immédiates de la conscience;
Matière et mémoire; essai sur la relation du corps à l’esprit;
L’évolution créatrice
[be]
1914 Maeterlinck, Maurice Opera omnia [bf]
1922 France, Anatole Opera omnia [bg]
1931 van de Velde, Theodoor Hendrik Het volkomen huwelijk (1926) [bh]
1948 Sartre, Jean-Paul Opera omnia [bi]
1952 Gide, André Opera omnia [bj]
1952 Moravia, Alberto Opera omnia [bk]
1953 Kazantzakis, Nikos The Last Temptation of Christ (1955) [bl]
1956 de Beauvoir, Simone The Second Sex (1949);
The Mandarins (1954) 

Time Space and Electrical Reality

You conceive actions in terms of time since in physical world action seems to take up time in the same way a chair seems to take up space.

Electrical reality of thoughts and emotions and of dreams appear to be purely psychological in origin and take no space in the physical universe.

Electrical field has his own variety of dimensions.  Depths are contained within this system that are not depths in terms of space but rather depths and dimensions in terms of varying intensities.

There is also here a duration that is closely connected with intensity but not with continuity in terms of time.

In this electrical system a travel thorough time would merely involve a travel trough intensities.

There is a constant motion in this system as in all others and the constant motion makes motion possible within your own system.

According to Seth in Jane Roberts Books “The time is an electrical impulse that grow by intensity and not by moments.”

To speak of backward and forward is meaningless.

There are only various pulsations of varying intensities. Since strong intensities are natural result of weaker intensities it would be meaningless to call one present and one past.

Within your physical field and with physical time you ride the waves of these pulsations.

When the  pulsation is weak you call it past, when is the strongest you call it present, and one that seems to you not yet as strong as present you name it future.

You make the division yourselves. You have the framework and all the possibilities potential and limitations inherent within a system set up with a divided time field.

Shamans

“The social function of the Shaman was oracle, healer and spiritual guide all in one. Their job it was to maintain a connection with the spirit world.

The modern concept of a shaman is based on early stereotypes and Victorian values. Shaman were able to communicate through the Earth-spirit. They were often associated to an animal, or familiar.

The word shaman originated among the Siberian Tungus (Evenks) and literally means ‘he (or she) who knows’. The concept of a shaman was almost lost in the 20th century, but it is making a slow revival in ‘new-age’ cultures. It is often spoke of as one of the first ‘religions’ practiced by people.

Generally, the shaman enters the spirit world by effecting a transition of consciousness, entering into an dream state, ecstatic trance, either auto-hypnotically or through the use of intoxicants. The methods employed were diverse, and are often used together. Some of the methods for effecting such trances are as follows: Fasting, drumming, dancing, and psychedelic drugs.”

– The Shamanistic Belief System –

“Even though there have been many forms of shamanism throughout the world, Eliade (1972) identified some shared beliefs that are common to all of them:

– Spirits exist and strongly influence individual lives as well human society at large
– Spirits can be benevolent or malevolent
– While in trance, the shaman’s spirit can leave his body to enter the supernatural world
– Within spirit world, the shaman can interact and communicate with the spirits therein
– Answers to earthly problems can be found in spirit world
– The shaman can treat sickness caused by malevolent spirits
– The shaman can perform acts of divination
– The shaman can evoke animal images as spirit guides and message-bearers

All of these basic beliefs paint a picture that is radically different from the worldview of Western science. In the view of shamanistic cultures the physical world is much more complex than we think. According to the shamans, there is an other world interpenetrating physical existence that is inhabited by intelligent spirits. Even though these spirits are normally intangible as well as invisible to us, the shamans say that all humans constantly interact with them; be it actively or passively.”

It is believed that a large percentage of prehistoric rock art is of shamanic origin.

http://www.ancient-wisdom.com/shamanism.htm
http://eagleshaman.com/shamanism/what-is-shamanism/

Ingo Swann

 

Ingo Swann was a clairvoyant capable of experiencing and/or perceiving the universe by jumping beyond the illusion of time and space.

Here are few quotes:

Turn away from fear, a totally silly emotion, and embrace love.

“Free up the mind from all the nonsense  that keeps us back from accomplishing greater things than we have done.”

“The greatest evil in the world is a closed mind.”

Consciousness is not the same thing as the human body.  He proved that the two could easily separate.

Ingo’s belief was that evil is a shadow and does not really exist.  Good is also a function of Maya, the illusion that we call our reality.  love is the only eternal reality.

It is the light and darkness, the Yin and Yang, but where darkness is merely the absence of light.

Both good and evil are aspects of Maya. As long as Maya exists, they exist. Within Maya they are real enough.

Maya is no longer an endlessly revolving wheel of pain and pleasure, but a ladder which can be climbed to consciousness of the Reality. From this standpoint, fortune and misfortune are both “mercies”-that is to say, opportunities.

“If all there is is now, then the rest is illusion, much as the ancient Hindus held. It is Maya.” Ingo Swann.

A great symphony does not come from a brain cell.” Similarly, he said, “the human is not created in God’s likeness, it is part of God.”

The body is a mechanism beyond the mind it hosts, as the mind it hosts is only a minute fragment of what is there.

All humans are equal on all aspects. Everyone is infinitely psychic.

“The body”, Ingo would say, “Is a construction, or form, created from energy. All form is naught but energy. There is energy and then there is consciousness that uses energy to create all form, including the body. It creates entire realities.

Atoms are energy. On close examination, we see energy, not mass. All matter is made of atomic structure right down to quarks, the smallest particles of the atom. When nuclear physicists refer to “mass”, they are not referring to anything solid.

The word “solid” is one of those made up labels no one understands because even when it is explained as a negative or positive charge this does not cause it to be understood.”

Ingo was convinced that humans are in constant communication with a fantastic source of all that is. Some call it The Akashic Record. He did not believe that Handel’s Messiah or any other great music came from brain tissue.

Although in summary, Ingo felt that “we” create our own realities, much as was held by Seth, the discarnate personality channeled by Jane Roberts in her list of channeled books. Where he differed and held firm was in his belief that we cannot know who or what “we” are. Beyond that, the “We” is ever changing. It is also perceived differently depending upon who is observing.

Late 1980 scientists were rediscovering an old fact, that anything stared at by a human being, especially with strong concentration, will change at that moment on some level beyond the perception of the unaided human eye.

Creativity and the Energy of Dreams

Every man has within himself creative dreams. The question is in which direction are they aimed? And how powerful is the energy thought including its energy.

When a thought is created with meticulous approach to the last detail the though will be materialized in a future reality.

The feature that distinguished man from all other creatures is his capacity to think.

Bit thought is found in animals and plants . Man distinguished himself from all others by the speed of his thinking.

It is difficult to talk with someone whose though operates at a slower speed.

Even a small child should not be distracted from what he is doing or the operations of his thoughts should not be stopped.

Education should start with the correct questions to the child.

When a child is presented with a question his thought begins to search for the answer and gain more and more momentum. The speed of his thinking increases minute by minute.

When children go to school they are persuaded that they should not think for themselves. That everything is already decided for them. The teacher not only explains but he demands that the children think the same way as somebody else has thought; Or children are prohibited to think independently.

Nibiru Winged Disk symbol

At the end of 19 that century astronomical tablets from Mesopotamia were deciphered by the savant Franz Kure and Ernst Weidner.

A planet named Nibiru came up in countless of texts starting with the Epic of creation.

We are told by the ancient texts if we stop treating them as myth or phantasy and consider them to be factual recollection  and records of actual events about a city Eric in Mesopotamia  to be “Home away from home” there had to be a home from which Enki come.

For his crew of fifty to be called “Those who from Heaven to Earth came” ( = Anunnaki) they have come from a place an actual place in the heaven.

There had to be a place where intelligent  beings capable of space travel some 450,000 years ago could live.

We call it planet X or planet of the Anunnaki ; in ancient Mesopotamia  was named Nibiru. The ubiquitous symbol throughout the ancient world was the Winged Disk.

It’s orbit was traced and observed and countless of texts starting with the Epic of Creation refer to it by name repeatedly.

Nibiru is the name of one more planet in our solar system.

Eridu

At the southernmost part of Sumer WHERE the Tigre and Ephrata Rivers come together in marshlands bordering  Persian Gulf a site locally called Abu Shahar in had attracted  the attention  of the British  Museum  as early as 1854. One of its experts J. E. Taylor reported after preliminary digging that the effort was unproductive of any very important results.

He did bring back some unimportant finds some mud bricks with writing on them. Fifty years later two French Assyriologists determined from those bricks that the site was ancient Eridu its name meant “House in the faraway built”. And it was the Sumer first city.

After world War two the I raking rectorate of Antiquities dug away occupation stratum from the latest top to the earliest bottom and uncovered 17 levels above the first one.

The city original temple (4000 B.C.) was dedicated to Sumerian god EA whose name meant “He whose Home is Water. It was his autobiography and many other texts who had waded

 

Black knots

Identification

  • Knobby swollen black growths called galls grow parallel along the length of stems and branches.
  • In early summer, young galls or new areas of growth on the edges of older galls are covered with velvety olive green spores.
  • These galls mature by the end of the summer; turning black and hard.
  • Black knots are most noticeable during winter because all the leaves are gone and the black knots stand out against the blue sky or white snow.
  • Infected branches may distort and bend due to the one-sided growth happening within the gall.
  • When galls completely girdle a branch, leaves on infected branches do not emerge or wilt and die in early summer.
  • A few galls to hundreds of galls can be within the canopy.
  • Large rough black galls that are often cracked can occur on the main trunk of the tree and may ooze sticky liquid.

Biology

dead leaves, very brown tree

M. Grabowski, UMN Extension

Dead leaves and wilting caused by a black knot gall that has girdled the branch

The fungus overwinters in the galls. During wet periods in the spring, spores are expelled and windblown to infect young green shoots or wounded branches.

Once spores germinate, the fungus grows between the plant cells with no outward signs visible on the plant for several months. During this time the parasite starts growing within the tree and releases chemicals that cause the plant to initiate excessive cell growth and enlargement that results in swollen black galls. Galls are made up of both plant and fungal tissue.

It is not uncommon for the gall to completely encircle and girdle a branch. When this happens the leaves beyond the gall wilt and die. In some cases, the branch and the gall die after spores are released in early spring. If the branch lives, the knot becomes perennial and continues to enlarge, producing new spores every spring. Although the black knot fungus will not cause trunk decay itself, the cracks formed by a trunk infection can provide an entry point for other wood rotting fungi.

Management

black, jagged growth on a tree trunk

M. Grabowski, UMN Extension

Large black knot gall on the main trunk of a Prunus tree.

Site and tree selection

  • In areas where there are many wild Prunus sp. infected with black knot, avoid planting landscape and edible Prunus sp.
  • If only a few infected wild Prunus sp. are present, prune out existing galls or completely remove infected plants to reduce the amount of fungal spores present before planting landscape and edible Prunus sp.
  • Choose Prunus spp. that have some tolerance to black knot (Table 1).
  • Thoroughly inspect ornamental as well as edible trees and shrubs to ensure they are disease free before purchasing them from the garden center.

Pruning out galls

The black knot fungus does not systemically infect the tree, but rather only infects the branch at and around the galls. Black knot galls can be removed from infected trees through pruning. This will improve the look of ornamental plants and reduce the amount of fungal spores produced within the tree canopy each spring. Unfortunately, black knot is a common disease of wild and landscape Prunus species in Minnesota. Even with diligent pruning, spores can be blown from infected plants far away and result in new infections. In addition, galls remain very small until a full year after infection. Therefore it may take 2 years of pruning to completely remove all existing infections as young galls are often overlooked.

  • Because black knot is common throughout Minnesota, galls in landscape trees can be tolerated if the disease does not result in wilt and death of leaves and branches.
  • In late winter remove all branches with swellings, cracks in the bark or black knots.
  • Remove at least 4 inches of healthy wood beyond the black knot.
  • Bury, burn or dispose of all branches from a site as spores can still be produced on pruned branches and spread to new areas.
  • Cracked and oozing galls on trunks or large branches should be inspected by a certified arborist to determine the structural stability of the tree. Black knot itself will not rot wood but secondary fungi can enter through cracks and result in wood rot and structural instability.

Fungicides

Fungicides can be used to protect young or highly susceptible Prunus trees from infection. Sprays must be applied in early spring to protect young green shoots. Begin fungicide treatment when flower buds are just beginning to open. Repeat sprays according to label instructions (typically every 7-10 days) until shoots mature or weather is consistently warm and dry. Sprays are most effective when applied before a rain event when temperatures are warmer than 60°F. In order to greatly improve the efficacy of the fungicide application it is important to prune out any existing galls in late winter before applying fungicides in spring.

Before application make sure to read the label carefully! The plant to be treated MUST BE listed on the label or the fungicide cannot be used on that plant. Not all fungicides registered for use ornamental Prunus spp. can be used on edible Prunus spp. For large trees, high-pressure spraying equipment is needed in order to get complete coverage; therefore hire a professional arborist who can safely operate all necessary equipment.

Chemical treatments effective against black knot include fungicides with one of the following active ingredients:

  • Captan
  • Chlorothalonil
  • Thiophanate- methyl
  • Lime sulfur